In 1894, during an outbreak of disease known as the Third Pandemic, bacteriologists Alexander Yersin and Shibasaburo Kitasato, identified the bacteria that caused plague. The disease was based in Hong Kong and India area and two scientist working independently reached the same conclusion on the cause of Black Death.
Effects of the plague are often varied or imprecise. According to the historical data of available there are several general symptoms. The most commonly noted symptom was the appearance of buboes in the groin, the neck and armpits, which oozed pus and bled when opened. This was followed by acute fever and vomiting of blood.
Most victims died within two to seven days after infection. The modern bubonic plague has a mortality rate of thirty to seventy-five percent and symptoms including fever of 38–41 °C (101–105 °F), headaches, painful aching joints, nausea and vomiting, and a general feeling of malaise.
If untreated, of those that contract the bubonic plague, 80% die within eight days. A vaccination is available in plague-affected areas of the world.
Social perspective changes
The Black Death prepared the stage for modern medicine approach and spurred changes in public health system. People became frustrated with diagnoses based on astrology and superstition, giving educators more credit for their emphasis on clinical medicine founded on physical science. Most of the european schools initially had to close for lack of staff, but plague eventually produced growth of the higher education system. New schools were established which learned from the mistakes in education clearly shown by the Black Death.
Feeling left from God and the Church, some of the people reacted by turning their backs on faith. They engaged in wild debauchery to celebrate being alive. Gluttonous banquets were held, where drinking was usual together with extravagant clothing and gambling. Believing death will come for everyone soon, majority of the art at the time represented activities depicted as a reminder that death could always be right around the corner.
Geneticists are continuing to research the effects of the Black Death on European population today. Analysis has shown that genetic diversity in England is much lower than it was in the eleventh century, possibly because so many people died in the 1300s. The rest of Europe doesn't show a diminished amount of genetic variation which may be caused by the increased migration patterns in other places.